Effective surveillance systems are valuable for assessing the impact of programs and directing resources. This has been recognized by top managers in developing countries, as the HIV and severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemics highlighted the importance of surveillance. China increased its surveillance capacity through FETP, while Argentina and Brazil chose to use World Bank loans to build surveillance capacity. In the U.S., the Agency for International Development recently changed its surveillance strategy and focused on how to use data to improve public health. 


In the context of plant health, passive surveillance can provide valuable information on pest outbreaks. For instance, the distribution of Agrilus biguttatus, a woodpecker-like insect, has been studied in Great Britain and is similar to that of Acute Oak Decline, but the extent and intensity of the pest’s damage are vastly different. Despite the differences, passive surveillance can significantly increase plant health monitoring efforts. 

In the medical field, passive surveillance relies on data collected from various institutions, such as physicians and hospitals, to monitor trends in disease incidence. It is generally cheap and produces essential information to monitor community health. However, passive surveillance systems depend on the quality of reports given by different institutions. Health care workers, hospitals, clinics, financial processes, and the health information and management system are all examples of passive surveillance. 

Another type of passive surveillance relies on volunteer reporting. Volunteers report on the issue they are aware of, often at convenient times, and report the information they find. The data collected through passive surveillance is often unstructured, biased, and unrepresentative. This systematic error is contrary to a basic assumption of statistical methods, which is that the data collected is representative of the population. If the quality of the reports is poor, it will be difficult to determine whether the surveillance was effective. 

Active surveillance is a form of surveillance whereby project staff is specifically recruited to monitor and investigate outbreaks. These health workers may survey villages, towns, and rural areas in order to collect data. These workers may conduct interviews, review medical records, or conduct surveys. They will report on any new cases of disease and deaths related to the outbreak. In addition to mosquitoes, active surveillance includes samples of other animals and insects. 

Active surveillance is more expensive and time-consuming than passive surveillance. Active surveillance, on the other hand, allows healthcare professionals to contact laboratories and other healthcare providers to find out whether a particular disease is spreading or affecting people. This type of surveillance can also provide a more accurate and complete estimate of the incidence of disease. This type of surveillance can be done via the Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network (MAVEN). 

Active surveillance is a common form of public health monitoring, especially for diseases on the verge of elimination or outbreak investigation. The surveillance process involves all institutions that provide health services, including hospitals, clinics, and laboratories. It is a catchment area selection process, and sites are selected based on their population flow, previous outbreaks, and the presence of a risk group. However, the effectiveness of surveillance depends on reporting. There is also a risk of underreporting, and it is far from an ideal solution to all public health concerns. 

Active surveillance, on the other hand, is a highly effective tool in the detection of outbreaks. Compared to passive surveillance, active surveillance is more accurate and involves specially trained individuals. It can be used in more extensive surveillance, and it is often cheaper to implement than passive surveillance. While both types of surveillance have their advantages and disadvantages, they should never be used in isolation. When a specific type of surveillance is needed, it’s important to understand how it works and why it is being used. 


While it is important to be careful when using unmanned surveillance, it can be highly effective and beneficial if deployed legally. It can be used to capture video that is completely hidden from the subject. This type of surveillance is also able to document whether or not the Subject has cohabited or attempted to evade service. A stationary platform can capture video of a specific area for hours on end at a fraction of the cost of manned surveillance. 

One method for modeling a UAV surveillance background is using a median filter technique. This method takes into account the number of frames needed to cover a specific scene. In this case, the UAVs were assigned to monitor a school, which has a low volume of traffic. For the background, 20 random frames were chosen. The UAVs were then programmed to follow the virtual leader of the group, which represents the target location. 

While drones can be dangerous, they don’t pose an immediate threat to humans. They can also be operated easily, are smaller than manned aircraft, and can maneuver into confined spaces. Furthermore, they can transmit images and videos to operators on the ground. The benefits of using unmanned surveillance are numerous. Once a drone is deployed, it can monitor an area for hours on end. It can also help to gather the information that is otherwise impossible to collect through traditional methods. 

For example, if a bomber has been identified, police would arrest him and use unmanned surveillance to monitor for unknown attackers. The footage captured by the drones would help law enforcement identify the attackers. This type of surveillance has been outlawed in many states but is a highly visible and popular activity that does little harm to citizens. Consider the Boston Marathon as an example. The event is televised, with Covert Surveillance cameras throughout the streets. Even spectators can photograph the event. 


The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the short communication range between UAVs to reduce the amount of redundant information in the images. It can also save energy in the sensing field. Moreover, the algorithm can control the flock of UAVs to avoid obstacles and lead them to their target. The proposed algorithms are proven to be effective by simulation results and experiments. They are also suitable for the surveillance of sensitive areas. This research will benefit manned surveillance operations. 

Although many critics of aerial surveillance have raised legitimate concerns, there are a few ways to protect privacy. First, legislators should focus on limiting the duration of surveillance. In the US, for example, it is possible for police to review surveillance footage collected from drones years after they have left the area. In addition, the government should publish the data gathered from aerial surveillance to ensure that the rights of individuals are protected. This will ensure that surveillance activities remain legal.